AAAA (American Associations of Advertising Agencies): AAAA (美国广告代理商协
A trade association of U.S. advertising agencies.
Advertising agency: 广告代理
A company that prepares and places advertising for its clients Agencies typically have media departments that specialize in planning, buying, and evaluating advertising time.
AQH (Average Quarter Hour):平均15分钟间隔(AQH)
内平均受众量的标准时间单位.(如:AQH 视听率, AQH 受众份额).
The standard unit of time for reporting average audience estimates(e.g.,AQH rating, AQH share)within specified dayparts.
Audience flow: 受众流动
The extent to which audiences persist from one program or time period to the next. See audience duplication, inheritance effects.
Audience duplication: 受众重叠
A cumulative measure of the audience that describes the extent to which audience members for one program or station are also in the audience of another program or station.
Audience fragmentation: 受众细分
A phenomenon in which the audience for a medium is distributed across a large number of program services. Cable is said to fragment the television audience, resulting in a decreased average audience share for each channel.
Audience polarization: 受众两极分化
A phenomenon associated with audience fragmentation, in which the audiences for channels or stations use them more intensively than an average audience member.
Audience turnover: 受众周转
A phenomenon of audience behavior usually expressed as the ratio of a station's cumulative audience to its average quarter hour audience.
Available audience: 可得受众
The number of people who are, realistically, in a position to use a medium at any point in time. It is often operationally deaned as those actually using the medium (i.e., PUT or PUR levels).
Average audience rating: 平均受众视听率
The rating of a station or program at an average point in time within some specified period of time. Metered data, for example, allow reports of audience size in an average minute during a television program.
Away from home listening: 户外收听
Estimate of radio listening that occurs outside the home. Such listening usually takes place in a car or workplace.
Basic cable: 基本有线电视
The programming services provided by a cable system for the lowest of its monthly charges. These services typically include local television signals, advertiser-supported cable networks, and local access.
Block programming: 节目组合
The practice of scheduling similar programs in sequence to promote audience flow.
Cable system: 有线电视系统
A video distribution system that uses coaxial cable and optical fiber to deliver multichannel service to households within a geographically defined franchise area.
Cable penetration: 有线电视渗透
The extent to which households in a given market subscribe to cable service. Typically expressed as the percent of all TV households that subscribe to basic cable.
The practice in attempting to interview someone in a survey sample who was not contacted or interviewed on an earlier try. The number of call back attempts is an important determinant of response rates and nonresponse error.
A Study in which every member of a population is interviewed or measured.
Channel loyalty: 频道忠诚度
A common phenomenon of aggregate audience behavior in which the audience for one program tends to be disproportionately represented in the audience for other programs on the same channel.
The total number of unduplicated audience members exposed to a media vehicle (e.g. newspaper station) over some specified period.
Cluster sample: 群抽样
A type of probability sample in which aggregations of sampling units, called clusters, are sampled at some stage in the process.
The numbers or letters used to represent responses in a survey instrument like a diary. Coding the responses allows computers to manipulate the data.
A type of telephone survey in which interviewers ask respondents what they are watching or listening to at the time of the call. Coincidentals, based on probability samples, often set the standard against which other ratings methods are judged.
Confidence level: 置信度
In probability sampling, a statement of the likelihood that a range of values (i.e. confidence interval) will include the true population value
Convenience sample: 方便抽样
A nonprobability sample, sometimes called an accidental sample, used because respondents are readily available or convenient.
A statistic that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. It may range in value from +1.O to-1.0, with O indicating no relationship.
CPP (Cost Per Point): 每点成本
A measure of how much it costs to buy the audience represented by one rating point. The size of that audience, and therefore its cost, varies with the size of the market population on which the rating is based.
CPM (Cost Per Thousand): 每千人(户)成本
A measure of how much it costs to buy 1OOO audience members delivered by an ad. CPMs are commonly used to compare the cost efficiency of different advertising vehicles.
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules material appealing to an audience other than the competition. Independents often counterprogram local news with entertainment.
The potential audience for a given station or network, defined by the size of the population reached, or covered, by the signal.
A type of survey design in which one sample is drawn from the population at a point in time.
A technique of data analysis in which the responses to one item are paired with those of another item. Cross, tabs are useful in determining the audience duplication between two programs.
Short for cumulative audience, it is the size of the unduplicated audience for a station over a specified period. When the cume is expressed as percent of the market population it is referred to as cume rating.
Cume duplication: 累计重叠
The percentage of a station's cume audience that also listened to another station, within some specified period.
A period of time, usually defined by certain hours of the day and days of the week (e.g., weekdays vs. weekends), used to estimate audience size for the purpose of buying and selling advertising time. Dayparts can also be defined by program content (e.g., news, sports).
量包括年龄, 性别, 受教育程度
A category of variables often used to describe the composition of audiences. Common demographics include age, gender, education, occupation and income.
A paper booklet, distributed by ratings companies, in which audience members are asked to record their television or radio use, usually for one week. The diary can be for an entire household (television) or for an individual (radio).
Early fringe: 早期边缘时段
In television, a daypart in late afternoon immediately prior to the airing of local news programs.
Effective exposure: 有效暴露
A concept in media planning stipulating that a certain amount of exposure to an advertising message is necessary before it is effective. Often used interchangeably with the term effective frequency.
ESS (Effective Sample Size): 有效样本量
The size of a simple random sample needed to produce the same result as the sample actually used by the rating company. ESS is a convenience used for calculating confidence intervals. Also called effective sample base, or ESB.
Exclusive cume audience: 独家累计受众
The size of the unduplicated audience that listens exclusively to one station within some specified period.
In advertising, the average number of times that an individual is exposed to a particular advertising message.
In television, dayparts just before prime time (early fringe) and after the late news (late fringe).
The term describing the tendency of viewers to frequently change channels, a behavior that is presumably facilitated by remote control.
Gross impressions: 总体效果
The number of times an advertising schedule is seen over time. The number of gross impressions may exceed the size of the population since audience members may be duplicated.
GRP (Gross Rating Point): 总视听率点
The gross impressions of an advertising schedule expressed as a percentage of the population. GRPs are commonly used to describe the size or media weight of an advertising campaign. GRPs=Reach ×Frequency.
Group quarters: 集体宿舍
Dormitories, barracks, nursing homes, prisons, and other living arrangements that do not qualify as households, and are, therefore, not measured by ratings companies.
A television programming strategy in which an unproven or weak show is scheduled between two popular programs in hopes that viewers will stay tuned, thereby enhancing the rating of the middle program.
An identifiable housing unit, such as an apartment or house, occupied by one or more persons.
HUT (Households Using Television): 家庭开机率
A term describing the total size of the audience, in households, at anyone time. Expressed as either the projected audience size, or as a percent of the total number of households.
A description of audience behavior that implies viewers are unlikely to change channels unless Provoked by very unappealing programming.
Inheritance effect: 沿袭效应
A common phenomenon of television audience behavior in which the audience for one program is disproportionately represented in the audience of the following program. Sometimes called lead-in effects, audience inheritance can be thought of as a special case of channel loyalty.
A method of collecting data through oral questioning of a respondent, either in person, or over the telephone.
Late fringe: 晚期边缘时间
In television, a daypart just after the late local news(11pm EST).
The program that immediately precedes another on the same channel. The size and composition of a lead, in audience is an important determinant of a program's rating.
LOP (least objectionable program): 可以接受的节目
Paul Klein 提出的电视观众行
以接受的 (不厌恶的) 节目.
A popular theory of television audience behavior attributed to Paul Klein, that argues people primarily watch TV for reasons unrelated to content, and they choose the least objectionable programs.
Measurement error: 测量误差
Systematic bias or inaccuracy attributable to measurement procedures
A measure of central tendency defined as that point in a distribution where half the cases have higher values and half have lower values.
Minimum reporting standard: 最低报告标准
The number of listening or viewing mentions necessary for a station or program to be included in a ratings report
Multiset household: 多台电视家庭
A television household with more than one working television set.
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules content of the same type or appealing to the same subset of the audience.
Net weekly circulation: 每周净循环
The cume or unduplicated audience using a station or network in a week
An organization that acquires or produces programming and distributes that programming, usually with national or regional advertising, to affiliated stations or cable systems.
Nonprobability sample: 非随机抽样
A kind of sample in which every member of the population does not have a known probability of selection into the sample.
Off-network Programs: 网下节目
Programs originally produced to air on a major broadcast network, now being sold in syndication.
The label given to ratings, based on meters, that are available to clients the day after broadcast.
Passive audience: 被动观众
A term given to viewers who are unselective about the content they watch. Passive audiences are thought to watch TV out of habit tuning to almost anything if a preferred show is unavailable.
The programming services provided by a cable system for a monthly fee above and beyond that required for basic cable. Paycable may include anyone of several premium services like HB0, showtime, or The Disney Channel.
A device that electronically records the on-off and channel tuning condition of a TV set and is capable of identifying viewers. If viewers must enter that information by button pressing, the meter is caned active; if the meter requires no effort from viewers, it is called passive.
Placement interview: 定位访问
An initial interview to secure the willingness of the respondent to keep a diary or receive a meter.
The total number of persons or households from which a sample is drawn. Membership in a population must be clearly defined, often by the geographic area in which a person lives.
An action, taken by an affiliate, in which programming fed by a network is replaced with programming scheduled by the station. Certain types of commercial time can also be preempted by advertisers willing to pay a premium for the spot.
Prime time: 黄金时间
A television daypart from 7p.m. to 11p.m.EST. Due to FCCeregulations, broadcast networks typically feed programming only from 8p.m.to llp.m.EST.
Probability sample: 概率抽样
A kind of sample in which every member of the population has an equal or known chance of being selected into the sample. Sometimes called random samples, probability samples allow statistical inferences about the accuracy of sample estimates.
Program type: 节目类型
A category of programming usually based on similarities in program content.
A quality describing a sample designed in such a way that audience projections may be made.
Projected audience: 推及的受众
The size of an audience estimated to exist in the population, based on sample information.
PUR (Persons Using Radio): 收音机个人开机率
A term describing the total size of the radio audience at any point.
PUT (Person Using Television): 电视个人开机率
A term describing the total size of the television audience, in persons, at any time.
Qualitative ratings: 定性视听率
Numerical summaries of the audience that not only describe how many watched or listened, but their reactions including enjoyment interest, attentiveness, and information gained.
Qualitative research: 定性调查
Any systematic investigation of the audience that does not depend on measurement and quantification. Examples include focus groups and participant observation. Sometimes used to describe any nonratings research, even if quantification is involved, as in `qualitative ratings.`
Quota sample: 定额抽样
A type of nonprobability sample in which categories of respondents called quotas (e.g., males), are filled by interviewing respondents who are convenient.
Random Digit Dialing (RDD): 随机拨号
In telephone surveys, a technique for creating a probability sample by randomly generating telephone numbers. By using this method, all numbers (including unlisted) have an equal chance of being called.
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station, program, or daypart out of the total market population.
The number of unduplicated persons or households included in the audience of a station or a commercial campaign over some specified period. Sometimes expressed as a percentage of the market population.
Repeat viewing: 重复收视
The extent to which the audience for one program is represented in the audience of other episodes of the series.
A study repeating the procedures of an early study to assess the stability of results. In audience measurement, replications involve drawing subsamples from a parent sample to assess sampling error
A sample member who provides information in response to questions
Response error: 回复误差
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to the quality of responses, including lying, forgetting, or misinterpreting question.
A subset of some population.
Simple frame: 抽样框
A list of some population from which a probability sample is actually drawn.
Sample weighting: 样本加权
The practice of assigning different mathematical weights to various subsets of the in-tab sample in an effort to correct for different response rates among those subsets. Each weight is the ratio of the subset's size in the population to its size in the sample.
Sampling error: 抽样误差
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to “the luck of the draw` in creating a probability sample.
Sampling rate: 抽样率
The ratio of sample size to population size.
The number of sets turned on at a given point. As a measure of audience size, it has become outdated since most households now have multiple sets
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station or program out of all those using the medium at that time.
Simple random sample: 简单随机抽样
A one-stage probability sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of selection.
The extent to which nonmarket stations are viewed by local audiences, or local stations are viewed by audiences outside the market.
Standard error: 标准误差
The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. It is the statistic used to make statements about the accuracy of estimates based on sample information.
Stratified sample: 分层抽样
一种概率抽样.将人口分成相同的子群或层, 再从每一层抽取预定的样本数目. 分层抽样可以减少由简单随机抽样造成的抽样误差.
A type of probability sample in which the population is organized into homogeneous subsets or strata, after which a predetermined number of respondents is randomly selected for each strata. Stratified sampling can reduce the sampling error associated with simple random samples.
Stripped programming: 节目拆开编排法
A programming practice in which television shows am scheduled at the same time on 5 consecutive weekdays. Stations often strip syndicated programs.
In television, a 4-week period during which ratings companies are collecting the audience information necessary to produce local market reports.
Systematic sample: 系统抽样
A kind of probability sample in which a set interval is applied to a list often population to identity elements included in the sample (e.g., picking every 10th name).
Target audience: 目标受众
Any well-defined subset of the total audience that an advertiser wants to reach with a commercial campaign or a station wants to reach with a particular kind of programming.
Telephone recall: 电话回忆访问法
A type of survey in which a telephone interviewer asks the respondent what they listened to or watched in the recent past, often the preceding day.
Television household (TVHH): 电视家庭
A common unit of analysis in ratings research, it is any household equipped with a working television set, excluding group quarters.
Time period averages: 某时期平均值
The size of a broadcast audience at an average point in time, within some specified period.
Total audience: 总体受众
All those who tune to a program for at least 5 minutes. Essentially, it is the cumulative audience for a long program or miniseries.
Trend analysis: 趋势分析
A type of longitudinal survey design in which results from repeated independent samplings are compared over time.
TSL (Time Spent Listening): 收听时间
A cumulative measure of the average amount of time an audience spends listening to a station within a daypart.
Unduplicated audience: 非重叠受众
The number of different persons or households in an audience over a specified period.
Unit of analysis: 分析单位
The element or entity about which a researcher collects information. In ratings, the unit of analysis is usually a person or household.
Unweighted in-tab: 未经加权的样本
The actual number of individuals in different demographic groups who have returned usable information to the ratings company.
Unwired networks: 无线网络
Organizations that acquire commercial time (usually in similar types of programming) from stations around the country and package that time for sale to advertisers.
VCR (Video-Cassette Recorder): 录像机
An appliance used for recording and playing videocassette tapes, now in a majority of U.S. households.
VPVH (Viewers Per Viewing Household): 每个收视家庭的观众
The estimated number of people, usually by demographic category, in each household tuned to a particular source.
Weighted in-tab: 加权样本
The number of individuals in different demographic groups who would have provided usable information if response rates were equivalent. See sample weighting.
The process of assigning mathematical weights in an attempt to correct over or underrepresentation of some groups in the unweighted in-tab sample. See sample weighting.